Fossil fuel combustion emits particulate matter (PM2.5) harmful to public health. This study estimates 10.2 million global excess deaths in 2012 due to PM2.5 from fuel combustion. The greatest mortality impact is estimated over regions with substantial fossil fuel related PM2.5, notably China (3.9 million), India (2.5 million) and parts of eastern US, Europe and Southeast Asia. A substantial decline in fossil fuel emissions due to 43.7% reduction in fossil fuel PM2.5 from 2012 to 2018 brings the global total to 8.7 million premature deaths. This study demonstrates that the fossil fuel component of PM2.5 contributes a large mortality burden. Global mortality from outdoor fine particle pollution generated by fossil fuel combustion: Results from GEOS-Chem, Karn Vohra, Alina Vodonos, Joel Schwartz, Eloise A. Marais, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Loretta J. Mickley, Environmental Research 9 February 2021.